Friday, April 19, 2013

Guest Lecture from Dr. Hoagstrom

Reminder: we will have an exam review tomorrow (Saturday) at 8:30 am. Below is the link to the power points given during todays lecture.

Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Match up the terms below with their definitions - try to come up with an example of each term
  1. Phylogeny
  2. Ancestral
  3. Commensalism
  4. Taxonomy
  5. Character Displacement
  6. Demography
  7. Mutualism
  8. Polyphyletic
  9. Derived
  10. Convergent Evolution
  11. Embryology
  12. Mullerian Mimicry
  13. Predation
  14. Parasitism
  15. Paraphyletic
  16. Doubling Time
  17. Batesian Mimicry
  18. Carrying Capacity
  19. Systematics
  20. Cladistics
  21. Co-evolution
  22. Resource Partitioning
  23. Homologous structure
  24. Monophyletic
  25. Character Release
  26. Aposematic coloration
  27. Analogous structure

1. The time it takes for a population to double
2. The subdivision of a niche by 2 closely related population in order to
avoid competition with each other
3. A field of study that argues taxonomy must reflect the true
evolutionary history
4. A characteristic that is found in 2 or more animals that have the same
function but is not found in a common ancestor

5. A grouping of organisms that includes an ancestor and some, but not all
of its descendants
6. Co-evolution of aposematic coloration in 2 species that are both distasteful
7. A way of classifying, categorizing and naming organisms
8. A type of Symbiosis in which both species benefit from the relationship
9. A signal that has evolved to warn predators that the animal is deadly, dangerous,
or distasteful

10. A trait or characteristic that is recently evolved and is not found in ancestral lineage
11. A relationship between 2 or more species in which one species benefits and the
other is negatively affected

12. A grouping of organisms that includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants
13. The study of evolutionary relationships
14. A process in which two or more species influence the evolution of one another
15. The study of early animal development

16. A trait or characteristic shared by all descendants in a phylogeny
17. The maximum number of individuals in a population that can be supported by the
18. The evolutionary history and line of descent of a species
19. Morphological feature becomes more similar between closely related species when
geographically isolated

20. A type of Symbiosis in which one species benefits from the relationship and the other
is not affected
21. The study of populations, originally termed for the study of human populations
22. Morphological feature becomes more different between closely related species in sympatry
23. Evolution that produces similar attributes due to similar habitat but not common ancestry
24. Co-evolution of aposematic coloration in both a distasteful species and a palatable species
25. A type of Symbiosis in which one species benefits and the other is harmed, but not usually
killed, from the relationship
26. A grouping of organisms that includes two convergent descendants but not their common
27. A characteristic that is found in 2 or more animals that can be found or traced to a common

Taxonomy and Phylogeny Power Point



Monday, April 1, 2013

Vocabulary for Exam 3

This is a list of vocabulary that I thought might be important for exam 3. Most of them are on the exam review (posted before this and still available) but some are not. Let me know if you don't know some of these.


·         Inheritance of Acquired characteristics

·         Transformation

·         Stasis

·         Spontaneous generation

·         Transmutation

·         Darwins Observations – you should know where he went, what he saw, what he thought about these observations

·         Theories of Natural Selection

·         Natural Selection

·         Variational Evolution

·         Special creation

·         Struggle for existence

·         Industrial melanism

·         Directional selection

·         Stabilizing selection

·         Disruptive selection

·         Artificial selection

·         Physiological adaptation

·         Phenotypic plasticity

·         Genetic drift

·         Intrasexual selection

·         Intersexual selection

·         Sexual dimorphism

·         Polyandrous

·         Hamilton Zuk Hypothesis

·         Handicap Hypothesis

·         Runaway selection

·         Primary sex characteristics

·         Secondary sex characteristics

·         Sexy Son Hypothesis

·         Polymorphism

·         Sibling species

·         Subspecies

·         Character Displacement

·         Character Release

·         Sympatric

·         Allopatric

·         Sympatric Speciation

·         Allopatric Speciation

·         Prezygotic Isolation

·         Geographic isolation

·         Ecological isolation

·         Behavioral isolation

·         Temporal isolation

·         Mechanical isolation

·         Gametic isolation

·         Post zygotic isolation

·         Zygote death

·         Infertility

·         Genus species

·         Founder effect

·         Genetic drift

·         Bottleneck

·         Adaptive radiation

·         Reinforcement

·         Ring species

·         Host shift

Sunday, March 31, 2013

Exam 3 review

** Wherever it has (CATA) following a question it means circle all that apply. Good luck!!

1.     In a population of fish large males that are able to effectively defend a breeding zone are selected for by the females in the population. Intermediate sized males are unable to defend a breeding zone and are not usually picked by the females. Small males in this population look a lot like the females and are often ignored when they enter the breeding zone of a large male allowing them to “sneak fertilize” the eggs left by the female. After a period of time the population shows increased quantities of both large and small male fish.
a.     What mode of selection is occurring?
                                          i.    Directional Selection
                                         ii.    Stabilizing Selection
                                        iii.    Artificial Selection
                                        iv.    Natural Selection
                                         v.    Disruptive Selection
b.     T/F – This is an example of sexual selection? If true what type? _______________________________
2.     A small number of birds are blown from the mainland to an uninhabited island. The parent population had many different variations of feather color but the new much smaller island population only shows 2 distinct color differences, blue and red. The island has two endemic tree species that drop seeds throughout the year, and the seeds dropped range from 1 cm to 4 cm. After a long period of time passes the bird populations are evaluated and several different sympatric populations are observed. Population (A) has large beaks and has both blue and red individuals that don’t select for color when mating. Population (B) has very small beaks and only blue individuals that forage for food during the evening. Population (C) eats early in the morning, has bright red males that sing during breeding season, and brown/red females. A researcher watches the population through an entire breeding season and finds that none of the populations interbreed.
a.     What describes the initial event that occurred? ______________. This is an example of genetic _______.
b.     What describes the phenotypic variation in population A? ___________________________
c.     What describes the phenotypic variation in population C? ________________________________
d.    What term describes the beak differences between population A and B? ___________________________
e.     What mode of selection occurred with the beaks in population A? ________________________________
f.      What isolating mechanism keeps population B and C from interbreeding? ________________________
g.     T/F – The trees on the island also live on the mainland making a great food source for the birds
3.     A population of Elk has males that compete for breeding rights with the females in the herd. After many generations it is observed that the breeding males have considerably larger antlers than the nonbreeding males. After considerable time has passed the males are observed to have extremely large antlers that could potentially inhibit foraging behavior but are still selected for by the females.
a.     T/F this species exhibits polyandry.
b.     The competition occurring between the males is an example of __________________________
c.     The extremely large antlers are an example of _____________________________
d.    What idea explains the increased survivability of males with extremely large antlers? _________________
e.     What type of characteristic are the male Elk antlers? ___________________________________
4.     Match up the following: match a name (a-e) with a description (f-j)
a.     Malthus
b.     LaMarck
c.     Darwin
d.    Mayr
e.     Wallace
f.      I developed the Biological Species Concept
g.     I studied populations in South East Asia and proposed Natural Selection as the mechanism of Evolution
h.     I wrote “An Essay on Population” and inspired the idea that individuals struggle for existence
i.      I studied individual variation within populations and proposed Natural Selection as the mechanism of Evolution
j.      I studied individual variation within populations and proposed Transmutation as the mechanism of Evolution

5.     “Superbugs” that evolved from the overuse of antibiotics is an example of:

a.     Natural Selection

b.     Transformation

c.     Special Creation

d.    Artificial Selection

6.     T/F – Ring species are good evidence of Evolution

7.     Variational Evolution is a synonym for:

a.     Special Creation

b.     Natural Selection

c.     Transmutation

d.    Disruptive Selection

8.     Prezygotic Isolating mechanisms include: (CATA)

a.     Geographical Barriers

b.     Infertility

c.     1° sex characteristic incompatibility

d.    Gametic

9.     T/F – Sibling species would be considered 2 separate species according to the Biological Species Concept.

10.   Character Release occurs with species that are: (CATA)

a.     Sympatric

b.     Temporally Isolated

c.     Allopatric

d.    Phenotypically similar

11.    Human birth weight is a good example of: (CATA)

a.     Stabilizing Selection

b.     Directional Selection

c.     Polymorphism

d.    Disruptive Selection

12.   T/F – Darwin and Lamarck proposed the Theory of Natural Selection in 1959.

13.   What idea proposes: individuals with brighter colors have better health

a.     Hamilton Zuk Hypothesis

b.     Sexy Son Hypothesis

c.     Handicap Hypothesis

14.   A set of twins are predisposed to develop Type II Diabetes. Twin A doesn’t exercise and eats high sugar high fat foods throughout his life. Twin B exercises and eats healthy through his life. Twin A develops diabetes and twin B does not. This is an example of ____________ (CATA)

a.     Dimorphism

b.     Polymorphism

c.     Phenotypic Plasticity

d.    Character Displacement

15.   Cricket populations that don’t interbreed due to chirp rate differences show what type of isolation? (CATA)

a.     Temporal

b.     Ecological

c.     Behavioral

d.    Mechanical

16.   T/F – 2 sympatric species occupy the same niche.

17.   An individual in a population can __________? (CATA)

a.     Live

b.     Change

c.     Adapt

d.    Die

18.   Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics involves: (CATA)

a.     Variational Evolution

b.     Trasformational Evolution

c.     Physiological Adaptation

d.    Stasis

e.     Individual Adaptation

19.    T/F – Ecological Isolation prevents different species from interbreeding in part because they eat different kinds of food.

20.  Natural Selection drives ________ (CATA)

a.     Character Displacement

b.     Adaptive radiation

c.     Transformational Evolution

d.    Allopatric Speciation

21.   A man and a woman living in New Orleans have a low red blood cell count. They move to Alta UT and after a year notice that their red blood cell count is considerably higher than before. The woman gives birth and the child’s red blood cell count is also high. This is an example of _________ (CATA)

a.     Transmutation

b.     Physiological adaptation

c.     Character Displacement

d.    Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

22.  Which of the following is a post zygotic reproductive isolating mechanism? (CATA)

a.     Behavioral

b.     Infertility

c.     Fetal Death

d.    Geographical Barriers

e.     Reinforcement

23.  Which mechanism of reproductive isolation is not controlled by genes? (CATA)

a.     Behavioral

b.     Geographical Barriers

c.     Temporal

d.    Mechanical

e.     Gametic

24.  T/F – Subspecies are phenotypically diverse and sympatric

25.  Which of the following were important points of Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection? (CATA)

a.     “Special Creation” was rejected

b.     Humans evolved through the same mechanism as all other living things

c.     Variational Evolution – individuals don’t change, only populations change

d.    Natural Selection is “goal less”

26.  T/F – Sympatric speciation relies on physical barriers to separate individuals of a population.